This lesson plan may be used to address the academic standards listed below. These standards are drawn from Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education: 4th Edition ( and have been provided courtesy of the Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning ( in Aurora, Colorado.

Eleven states have either mandated the teaching of the Armenian Genocide or included it in their standards. Those states are California, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, and Virginia. For more specific information on content standards for these states please go to

Topic: Historical periods
Arts and Communication
Standard 5. Knows a range of arts and communication works from various historical and cultural periods
Level IV [Grade 9-12]

Benchmark 7.Knows forms of communication media from different historical periods (e.g., print and non-print media forms such as broadsheets, newspapers, radio broadcasts, television news broadcasts, the Internet; forms of entertainment such as radio shows, movies, television shows, music videos)

Topic: Historical viewpoints and perspectives
Historical Understanding
Standard 2. Understands the historical perspective
Level IV [Grade 9-12]

Benchmark 2. Analyzes the influences specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history and specifies how events might have been different in the absence of those ideas and beliefs

Benchmark 4. Analyzes the effects specific decisions had on history and studies how things might have been different in the absence of those decisions

Benchmark 5. Understands that the consequences of human intentions are influenced by the means of carrying them out

Benchmark 7. Knows how to avoid seizing upon particular lessons of history as cures for present ills

Benchmark 10. Understands how the past affects our private lives and society in general

Benchmark 11. Knows how to perceive past events with historical empathy

Benchmark 14. Uses historical maps to understand the relationship between historical events and geography

Topic: Media and society
Language Arts
Standard 10. Understands the characteristics and components of the media

Arts and Communication
Standard 4. Understands ways in which the human experience is transmitted and reflected in the arts and communication
Level IV [Grade 9-12]

Benchmark 4.Knows ways in which various media forms throughout history (e.g., broadsheets, photography, newspapers, news broadcasts) have reflected or conveyed human events

Topic: Critical reading
Language Arts
Standard 1.Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
Level IV [Grade 9-12]

Benchmark 5. Uses strategies to address writing to different audiences (e.g., includes explanations and definitions according to the audience's background, age, or knowledge of the topic, adjusts formality of style, considers interests of potential readers

Benchmark 6. Uses strategies to adapt writing for different purposes (e.g., to explain, inform, analyze, entertain, reflect, persuade)

Benchmark 7. Writes expository compositions (e.g., synthesizes and organizes information from first- and second-hand sources, including books, magazines, computer data banks, and the community; uses a variety of techniques to develop the main idea [names, describes, or differentiates parts; compares or contrasts; examines the history of a subject; cites an anecdote to provide an example; illustrates through a scenario; provides interesting facts about the subject]; distinguishes relative importance of facts, data, and ideas; uses appropriate technical terms and notations)

Benchmark 8. Writes fictional, biographical, autobiographical, and observational narrative compositions (e.g., narrates a sequence of events; evaluates the significance of the incident; provides a specific setting for scenes and incidents; provides supporting descriptive detail [specific names for people, objects, and places; visual details of scenes, objects, and places; descriptions of sounds, smells, specific actions, movements, and gestures; the interior monologue or feelings of the characters]; paces the actions to accommodate time or mood changes; creates a unifying theme or tone; uses literary devices to enhance style and tone)

Benchmark 9. Writes persuasive compositions that address problems/solutions or causes/effects (e.g., articulates a position through a thesis statement; anticipates and addresses counter arguments; backs up assertions using specific rhetorical devices [appeals to logic, appeals to emotion, uses personal anecdotes]; develops arguments using a variety of methods such as examples and details, commonly accepted beliefs, expert opinion, cause-and-effect reasoning, comparison-contrast reasoning)

Benchmark 10. Writes descriptive compositions (e.g., uses concrete details to provide a perspective on the subject being described; uses supporting detail [concrete images, shifting perspectives and vantage points, sensory detail, and factual descriptions of appearance])

Benchmark 11. Writes reflective compositions (e.g., uses personal experience as a basis for reflection on some aspect of life, draws abstract comparisons between specific incidents and abstract concepts, maintains a balance between describing incidents and relating them to more general abstract ideas that illustrate personal beliefs, moves from specific examples to generalizations about life)

Benchmark 13. Uses appropriate strategies (e.g., organizational pattern, format, language, tone) to write personal and business correspondence (e.g., informal letters, memos, job application letters, resumes)

Standard 5. Uses the general skills and strategies of the reading process
Level IV [Grade 9-12]
Benchmark 4. Understands writing techniques used to influence the reader and accomplish an author’s purpose (e.g., organizational patterns, figures of speech, tone, literary and technical language, formal and informal language, narrative perspective)

Standard 7. Uses reading skills and strategies to understand and interpret a variety of informational texts
Level IV [Grade 9-12]

Benchmark 5.Uses text features and elements to support inferences and generalizations about information (e.g., vocabulary, structure, evidence, expository structure, format, use of language, arguments used)